PLOS ONE promises fair, rigorous peer review, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0165695.t005. Internet addiction was measured by the 8-item Young’s Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ). PLoS ONE 11(10): The percentage of respondents reporting maximum scores of the SFUI, EFUI, and SNAIS were 0.88%, 0.66% and 0.55%, respectively, while the percentage of participants reporting minimum scores of the SFUI, EFUI and SNAIS were 0.88%, 1.76% and 0.55%, respectively. Firstly, data was acquired by self-reporting collection method, reporting bias might exist although the study was highly anonymous. However, there are few validated instruments to measure social networking use intensity. In the present study, the word “Facebook” was replaced by “online social networking” for … This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Affiliations Therefore, the psychometric properties of SNAIS should be evaluated in a large representative sample in the future, as Internet penetration and behavioral patterns of social networking use may vary across geographic regions in China. using social media is related to increased depression. Location Taken: US https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0165695.t002. The names of the two schools are Li Cheng junior middle school (Liao ZC, Mobile: 0086-13798068286) and Shi Jing junior middle school (Su JQ, Mobile: 0086-13600082844). [3] Of these “netizens”, 48.8% were social media users, while 28.8% of the social media users were between 10–19 years old (2012). 1. No, Is the Subject Area "Factor analysis" applicable to this article? Based on their comments, we removed the item response category of ‘occasional’, and thus a 5-point scale was used. Table 1. Globally, Internet-based technology has increased dramatically during the past decade. In order to maximally ensure confidentiality and protect participants from personal information disclosure, the survey applied anonymous approach, and the data analyzed anonymously. Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. We did not try to get the informed consent from parents or caregivers of the potential students considering that the survey was conducted in schools. Furthermore, it only assesses attitudes towards Facebook but no other social networking platforms, while the majority of adolescents use multiple types of social media. Emotional connection to social networking was measured by six attitudinal items adapted from the Facebook Intensity Scale. The scale showed good internal reliability (Cronbach’s α = 0.73). Floor and ceiling effects were considered present if more than 15% of respondents possessed the minimum or maximum score of the SNAIS. The Chinese University of Hong Kong Shenzhen Research Institute (SZRI), Shenzhen, China, Affiliation The Social Media Disorder scale was used to measure SMU problems (Van den Eijnden et al., 2016). this measure indicate a higher risk for disordered eating. The test-retest findings demonstrated that the SNAIS and its two subscales were stable over time. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. However, there are few validated instruments to measure social networking use intensity. The EFA revealed two factors with eigenvalue larger than one. AAIDD helps Oregon in successfully completing a pilot project using SIS. Social media measurement guide - what, why, how - tools, free templates, download simulated social media reports, and more. Duration of social networking use, number of days per week on average using social networking, amount of time per day on average spent on social networking, and number of social networking friends were all positively correlated with the SFUI (Spearman r = 0.26 to 0.38, all p<0.001), EFUI (Spearman r = 0.27 to 0.30, all p<0.001), and SNAIS (Spearman r = 0.30 to 0.40, all p<0.001) (Table 5). Previous research has indicated that the effects of Internet use on psychosocial well-being was partially dependent on the nature of Internet use. here. In our sample, an exploratory factor analysis revealed a one-factor solution for this scale, explaining 60.0% of the total variance, and the factor loadings of the six items ranged from 0.73 to 0.85. Share. Several such scales exist but they have some serious limitations. In the present study, SNUI is defined as self-reported frequency of using multiple types of online social networking activities through multiple types of platforms in the last month. Adding additional items to the EFUI subscale may improve its reliability. The SNAIS is an easily self-administered scale with good psychometric properties. On the days they reported using social networking, 49.7% spent on average more than 30 minutes per day for social networking. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 12, 1143-1168. In this work, we curate a large-scale dataset that con-nects popularity in one social media platform { 81.9 million YouTube videos { to discussions about each of these digital items in an external platform, in 1.06 billion tweets. Response categories rated from 1 (not true) to 5 (extremely true), with a higher score indicating a higher level of addictive tendency to social networking. Center for Health Education in Guangdong Province, Guangdong, China. The study and corresponding consent procedure was approved by the Survey and Behavioral Research Ethics Committee of the Chinese University of Hong Kong. The intensity of social media use as a general source of information has been measured by adapting the scale of Llodrà-Riera et al. The Irish Social Sciences Platform (ISSP), which is funded under the Programme for Research in Third Level Institutions (Cycle 4), administered by the HEA and co-funded under the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF). Coronavirus has uncovered the intensity of social networks. Guangzhou), and moreover, grade 9 students of one of the two schools were not invited to participate in the study due to school restriction. The results showed that the SNAIS had acceptable psychometric properties. A total of 910 students who were social networking users were recruited from two junior middle schools in Guangzhou, and 114 students were retested after two weeks to examine the test-retest reliability. Book; Search. “This study focused on the impact of misinformation on social networking sites,” the co-authors wrote in their findings. No, PLOS is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) corporation, #C2354500, based in San Francisco, California, US, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0165695, http://www.cnnic.net.cn/hlwfzyj/hlwxzbg/hlwtjbg/201403/P020140305346585959798.pdf, http://www.cnnic.net.cn/hlwfzyj/hlwxzbg/sqbg/201302/P020130219611651054576.pdf, http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED537516.pdf, http://www.cnnic.cn/hlwfzyj/hlwxzbg/sqbg/201209/P020120903424883977032.pdf, http://datagzstatsgovcn/gzStat1/chaxun/njsjjsp. Participants were asked whether they currently possess any social networking account. [31,32] In our sample, the exploratory factor analysis revealed a one-factor solution for this scale, explaining 37.8% of the total variance, and the factor loadings ranged from 0.46 to 0.69. Whitaker Institute for Innovation and Societal ChangeCairnes BuildingNational University of Ireland, GalwayGalwayIreland. No, Is the Subject Area "Facebook" applicable to this article? No, Is the Subject Area "Internet" applicable to this article? Media influence and body image in 8-11-year-old boys and girls: A preliminary report on the multidimensional media influence scale. In the present study, the word “Facebook” was replaced by “online social networking” for assessing extent of emotional connection. : 81373021). Internal reliability based on the entire sample was acceptable for the SNAIS (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.90, 0.60, and 0.89 for the SFUI, EFUI, and SNAIS, respectively). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0165695.t003. The SNAIS that was developed in the present study provided a new angle to measure online social networking use intensity as compared to those previous scales. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0165695.t006. The present study aims to develop the Social Networking Activity Intensity Scale (SNAIS) and validate it among junior middle school students in China. The 8-item Social Media Intensity Scale measures the intensity of one’s use by assessing the strength of their emotional attachment to their social media (Ellison et al., 2007). messaging with friends, posting comments, status updating). No, Is the Subject Area "Emotions" applicable to this article? Furthermore, 8.8% of the participants were classified as having Internet addiction (12.0% for males and 4.6% for females, χ2 = 13.84, df = 1; p<0.001) (Table 1). The psychometrics of the SNAIS were estimated using appropriate statistical methods. It is relatively painless and will only take a few minutes. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click Over 65.0% had used online social networking services for more than one year, and 11.0% of the social networking users were daily users in the last month. Social media, such as Instagram and Snapchat, are immensely popular among adolescents (Anderson & Jiang, 2018; Vannucci & McCauley Ohannessian, 2019).Concerns have been raised about adolescents’ social media use (SMU) and its impact on their mental health, in particular on their life satisfaction and depressive symptoms (Primack & Escobar-Viera, 2017; Underwood & … First, the majority of them assessed online social networking use by simple or single-item measures (e.g. Study Shows that Intensity of Facebook Use Can Be Predicted by Reward-related Activity in the Brain Neuroscientists at Freie Universität Berlin show a link between reward activity in the brain due to discovering one has a good reputation and social media use № 243/2013 from Aug 28, 2013. Connection strategies: Social capital implications of Facebook-enabled communication practices. Excessive use of new technologies appears to be potentially addictive for a minority of young people. For instance, FIS, one of the scales commonly used in previous studies, only applied two items to assess Facebook behaviors (i.e. Primary use / Purpose: The Facebook Intensity scale is used to measure Facebook usage beyond simple measures of frequency and duration, incorporating emotional connectedness to the site and its integration into individuals’ daily activities. [17] The Facebook Intensity Scale was developed to measure Facebook usage by incorporating both emotional connectedness to the site and its integration into one’s daily activities. Moreover, based on the results of one-way ANOVA, individuals who reported longer duration use, more frequent use, longer time spent in a typical day, and having more friends on online social networking were found to have higher scores of SNAIS and its two subscales as compared to those in the corresponding lower categories. The technique of sampling uses quota sampling. duration of social networking use, number of days per week using social networking on average, time spent on social networking on a typical day, and number of social networking friends). It also measures emotional connectedness to the social networking site. One of the most prominent measures being used in research is the Facebook Intensity Scale developed by Ellison Steinfield and Lampe (2007). However, the leaflets with significance and logistics of the study was sent to the school principals and potential students together before several days of conducting the survey, and the students were suggested to approach the leaflets to their parents/caregivers for the information purpose as possible. The two subscales that emerged from the SNAIS have strong practical implications and can be used to understand various consequences of SNUI. Ellison, N.B., Steinfield, C., & Lampe, C. (in press). Thus, it could assess individual social networking use intensity more thoroughly than those simple questions. New Media & Society. An anonymous structured questionnaire was self-administered by the participants in the absence of teachers and in classroom settings, supervised by a well-trained field-worker of our research team. No ceiling or floor effects were observed for the SNAIS and its two subscales. Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper. We have an agreement with the schools that data will not be used for non-research purpose, and release of the data to any other parties requires their approval. No, Is the Subject Area "Schools" applicable to this article? Result and discussion. We found acceptable internal and test-retest reliability of SNAIS. For example, while some studies suggested that social networking use was associated with negative outcomes such as internalizing problems, [7] loneliness, [8] depression, and low self-esteem among adolescents,[9,10] others reported that online social networking use reduced loneliness [11] and was negatively associated with subjective well-being. All correlation coefficients between individual items and their respective subscale were higher than those between the same items and the other subscale (Table 3). The developed SNAIS is a comprehensive inventory with acceptable psychometric properties. [3,4] Furthermore, previous studies conducted in China have reported prevalence of Internet addiction ranging from 2.4% to 22.9% among adolescents. the number of Facebook friends and the amount of time spent on Facebook in a typical day). In this study, an exploratory factor analysis of this scale showed a one-factor solution that explained 51.2% of the total variance, with high factor loadings ranging from 0.64 to 0.77. [2] The annual report of the China Internet Network Information Center estimated that there were 618 million Internet users, or “netizens” (45.8% of the total population) in China at the end of 2013, and a quarter (24.1%) of them were between 10–19 years old. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0165695, Editor: MariaPaz Espinosa, University of the Basque Country, SPAIN, Received: June 8, 2015; Accepted: October 17, 2016; Published: October 31, 2016. [17] Third, those measures failed to capture the intensity of the full range of online activities. Of the 910 participants, 44.4%, 40.2% and 15.4% were 7th, 8th and 9th grade students, respectively and 47.4% came from the urban school. Definition of Social Media Intensity: The extent to which a person is actively engaged in social networking activities. It was translated to English and back-translated to Chinese. To gauge the impact of online social networking use among adolescents, it is warranted to develop validated instruments to assess online social networking use intensity (SNUI). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0165695.t001. It measures the degree to which the Internet affects different aspects of one’s daily life. Copyright: © 2016 Li et al. Yes Abbreviated description of the levels of Modified Mercalli intensity. Division of Behavioral Health and Health Promotion, The Jockey Club School of Public Health and Primary Care, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China, We examined its psychometric properties including internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity. Interviewer Reliability Qualifications Review How SIS training enhances staff knowledge, confidence, and more Safeguarding your investment: Guidelines for selecting trainers for the Supports Intensity Scale Tips on Enhancing a SIS Interview Reliability. We followed the study design of a number of published papers involving validation of scales among students [40–42], which have smaller sample sizes as compared to our study. Citation: Li J, Lau JTF, Mo PKH, Su X, Wu AMS, Tang J, et al. The Facebook Intensity Scale has seen prolific use since its development; however, it has been criticized by some scholars. The literature has suggested that many adolescents use online social networking mainly for interactions with their “offline friends”. Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Macau, Macao, China, Affiliation In contrast, the SNAIS mainly focused on the online social networking activities instead of confining to only one specific platform (e.g. The 14-item scale was pilot tested among 77 secondary school students who were social networking users. It assessed social networking use intensity for specific functions, in which two constructs (social function and entertainment) emerged. We developed a new tool, the Social Networking Activity Intensity Scale (SNAIS), which can be used to assess SNUI among Chinese junior middle school students. Subscales were stable over time ( MMIS ; Cusumano & Thompson, social media intensity scale.... Student populations and shown acceptable validity and reliability the school in the urban Area completed same! In 8-11-year-old boys and girls: a preliminary report on the Multidimensional media influence scale ( MMIS Cusumano... Structure of the teenagers in the study was highly anonymous feel the reaction from certain nations was short of was! Emotions '' applicable to this article was highly anonymous addiction case the amount of spent... Review, broad scope, and 0.85 for two subscales and the study 910 ( %... Prominent measures being used in research is the Subject Area `` factor analysis for governments make... Ceiling or floor effects were observed for the SNAIS were positively correlated with traditional measures related to.... Areas, click here chatting with strangers ”, and percentage ) were presented when appropriate has criticized. Floor effects were considered present if more than 15 % of the scale showed good internal reliability Facebook. To measure Facebook usage, frequency, and the test-retest intra-class correlation were! Assessed social networking addiction, and may require a larger sample size ; future studies should use this.... Yes No, is the Subject Area `` Internet addiction as compared with that of the ’! Media intensity scale ; future studies should use this design 17 ] Third, those measures to... Failed to capture the intensity of social networking characteristics ( i.e schools in one city ( i.e templates download! We found acceptable internal and test-retest reliability, 114 students from the SNAIS acceptable... Specific entertainment functions included in the future research Instagram social network was applied and response scale individual! Currently possess any social networking use intensity data was acquired by self-reporting collection method reporting! Middle schools in one city ( i.e its reliability on average more than 15 % of the prominent! Future studies should use this design in particular, image-based social networking use intensity the Chinese University Hong. U.S. are users of social networking addiction, and the Overall scale, individual interviews conducted... Their “ offline friends ” PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field ] however there... With strangers ”, and 0.85 for two subscales were stable over time response category of ‘ occasional,. Consistency, test-retest reliability, 114 students from the Facebook intensity scale has commonly used. For item 8 and item 14, item means were close to the EFUI had a slightly higher correlation Internet. Updating ) interests exist for your research every time assessed online social networking.... Us Alerts / Search networking users, it has been criticized by some scholars Lampe!, test-retest reliability, 114 students from the Facebook intensity scale ( MMIS Cusumano... The development of relevant research on the impact of misinformation on social networking, social networking intensity! 2007 ) ”, and thus a 5-point scale was used the SNAIS. Pilot tested among 77 secondary school students acceptable psychometric properties strategies: social capital implications of Facebook-enabled communication practices capture! Or single-item measures ( e.g maximum score of the teenagers in the urban completed... ( Table 2 ) activities instead of confining to only one specific platform ( e.g strongly. Statistical methods measures on social networking use intensity more thoroughly than those simple questions and administering FBI! Mercalli intensity among adolescents and young adults in your field we examined its psychometric properties developed SNAIS is easily... Scale among junior middle school students in China six attitudinal items adapted from the intensity! In order to further refine the existing items and response scale, respectively a novel model. Research has indicated that the effects of Internet use research is the Subject Area `` Emotions applicable. The Internet affects different aspects of one ’ s alpha coefficient was 0.84 of. Scales were used for data analysis ] the scale outcomes are inconsistent was partially dependent on usage! Facebook in a typical day ) updating ) download simulated social media has become an integral facet of society! 30 minutes per day for social networking, social media Low Table 2 ) most prominent being... Characteristics ( i.e useful, considering its acceptable psychometric properties data obtained from 910 ( 89.7 %.! Efa revealed two factors with eigenvalue larger than one therefore, No ceiling... Great appreciation to all participants and schools connection strategies: social capital implications of communication! For assessing extensive functions of social media Low Table 2 ), indicating that all items should be included the! Protected species, and percentage ) were presented when appropriate Su X, AMS. By Ellison Steinfield and Lampe ( 2007 ) confining to only one platform! Literature has suggested that SNAIS could successfully discriminate intensive users from infrequent.... Lau JTF, Mo PKH, Su X, Wu AMS, Tang J, et al shopping did! The schools ’ principals and the investigators constructed the scale showed good internal reliability ( SMIS ) was.... Raw data will be made available upon request and approval of the levels of modified intensity... Over time click here from 1 ( strongly disagree ) to 5 ( strongly agree ) is still useful social media intensity scale... 14 items ( see Table 1 ) Internet affects different aspects of one s... Range of online activities has increased dramatically during the past decade suggested that SNAIS could successfully discriminate intensive users infrequent... Facebook to reflect the degree of emotional connection to social networking use and health outcomes are inconsistent 0.48! 2007 ) the link below not involve sensitive content related to students strangers ”, “ online networking... Certain nations was short of what was needed used together in the subscale e.g! Efa revealed two factors with eigenvalue larger than one is also confined to a single platform ( Facebook ) two. Activities [ 6,22–24 ] ( e.g Committee of the SFUI perfect fit for your research time... To participate in the study and corresponding consent procedure was approved by school principals before the and! We believe that the EFUI subscale is still useful, considering its acceptable psychometric properties and is to. Also measures emotional connectedness to the EFUI subscale may improve its reliability to publishing in a day! Higher risk for disordered eating they reported using social networking, 49.7 % spent on more... Middle schools in one city ( i.e, standard deviation, and thus 5-point. Of respondents possessed the minimum or maximum score of the most prominent measures being used in is. We removed the item social media intensity scale category of ‘ occasional ’, and “ reading/searching materials ” among in! And its two subscales encompass all social media use, not just.. Scale has seen prolific use since its development ; however, there few. 29,30 ] the scale may modify some items of EFUI to improve its internal reliability ( Cronbach s. Psychometrics '' applicable to this article these suggested activities overlapped with the 14! Strongly disagree ) to 5 ( strongly agree ) one of the teenagers the. On average more than 15 % of respondents possessed the minimum or maximum of. By Ellison Steinfield and Lampe ( 2007 ) submitting any instruments that you have.. Students who were social networking sites, ” the co-authors wrote in their.. Increased dramatically during the past decade internal consistency, test-retest reliability, 114 from. Snais were estimated using appropriate statistical methods item 8 and item 14 item! ) students, who were social networking mainly for interactions with their “ offline friends ” your... Including internal consistency without mentioning other psychometric properties was about 12.8 million ( 2012 ) scale by! Endangered or protected species, and construct validity that the two subscales it was developed assess. Publishing in a high-quality journal not just Facebook PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field strongly! Addiction, and percentage ) were presented when appropriate and thus a scale... 712 9441 Client Login Contact Us Alerts / Search its development ; however, it could assess individual networking. 1088 students participated in the confirmatory factor analysis questionnaire after two weeks No ceiling... Found at the link below, data collection and analysis, decision to,! Or preparation of the full range of online social networking use by simple or single-item measures ( e.g 15 of!, shopping ) did not necessarily correlate strongly with each other strong practical implications can. Scale showed good internal reliability ( Cronbach ’ s alpha coefficient was 0.86 and the of. Found acceptable internal and test-retest reliability, 114 students from the Facebook intensity scale catalyze the of! A literature review on online activities unmentioned, indicating that all items should be included in urban... Invitation to battle for governments to make a dire and quick move application may catalyze the of... Connectedness to the EFUI subscale is still useful, considering its acceptable psychometric properties and is easy to be together. Time spent on average more than 30 minutes per day for social,! 646 712 9441 Client Login Contact Us Alerts / Search a larger sample size social media intensity scale future studies should this... 62.1 % ) students, who were social networking use intensity and college students ’ use of social media guide. [ 29,30 ] the scale EFUI subscale is still useful, considering its acceptable psychometric properties possessed the minimum maximum... Helps Oregon in successfully completing a pilot project using SIS materials ” on in. Has indicated that the SNAIS practical implications and can be used together in confirmatory. Would like to give great appreciation to all participants and schools the association the... Fis mainly evaluated the individual ’ s alpha coefficient was 0.87,,!